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Poster Program

 

INTERNATIONAL POSTERS dealing with various aspects of PM and particulate materials technologies will be displayed daily starting on Monday morning. Authors will be available at their posters for discussion Monday (5:30–7:00 p.m.) during the PM Evening Alehouse. Manuscripts submitted from poster authors will be published in the conference proceedings.

“Outstanding Poster” and “Poster of Merit” awards will be given by the Poster Awards Committee for displays that best meet the established criteria. Award ribbons will be posted prior to the designated discussion period on Monday.

Additionally, National Science Foundation, MPIF and CPMT/Axel Madsen student grant recipients' posters will be on display and are listed on the conference app.

Poster A: Materials               Poster B: Processing               Poster C: Properties

Poster A: Materials

092 - Effect of Time and Temperature on Microstructure Evolution of Infiltrant Liquid Phase Sintered MAR-M247
Coleton Parks

Liquid phase sintering has been widely utilized as one of the go-to alternatives to welding in the repair of turbine components in aerospace and power generation industries. In this study, the microstructural evolution of MAR-M247, using an infiltrating liquid filler alloy, BNi-9, was investigated. The parameters of interest were processing time and temperature. Through a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, and optical and electron microscopy, several insights were gleaned. (1) Once in the liquid state, the BNi-9 alloy readily infiltrated the porous MAR-M247 structure, via capillary action; (2) It was observed that significant densification was obtained prior to reaching isothermal sintering temperatures via particle rearrangement and solution-reprecipitation mechanisms; (3) As sintering time and temperature increased, a significant amount of coalescence and coarsening of MAR-M247 was observed due to enhanced mass transport and extended exposure to the liquid phase; (4) Intergranular BNi-9 was found to consist of binary eutectic constituents, γ-Ni and CrB, when sintered at 1,150°C and 1,180°C, while ternary eutectic constituents, γ-Ni, CrB, and Ni3B, were observed when sintered at 1,200°C. The implications on further research and industrial applicability are explored.

136 - Additive Manufacturing of an Alumina-Forming Ni-Base Alloy Haynes® 233™ - A Preliminary Assessment
Abdul Shaafi Shaikh, EOS Finland

An industrial success story in metal additive manufacturing has been the adoption of oxidation resistant high temperature materials in laser powder bed fusion. Ni-base alloys, primarily Hastelloy® X, have been used in laser powder bed fusion for serial production components in the energy and aerospace industries. With these industries moving to achieve lower emissions with higher temperatures and alternative fuels like hydrogen, there is a need to investigate materials that can serve for longer times in harsher environments. Alloys that form protective alumina scale have an inherent advantage over chromia scale formers due to the stability of alumina at higher temperatures. In this study an alumina forming Ni-base alloy called Haynes® 233™ was assessed for laser powder bed fusion processability. Its mechanical properties and early-stage oxidation performance were characterized at elevated temperatures and compared to Hastelloy® X. It was found that Haynes® 233™ is sensitive to defect formation during laser powder bed fusion processing, but also shows improved high temperature tensile, creep, and oxidation performance compared to Hastelloy® X.

Poster B: Processing

045 - High-Throughput Materials by Design Framework Utilizing Experimental and Computational Tools
Sean Fudger, U.S. Army Research Laboratory

Traditional material discovery and development follows an Edisonian approach of trial and error yielding few significant improvements at intermittent intervals. The purpose of this research is to utilize machine learning (ML) to help guide the material development process, particularly focusing on using computational techniques to explore complex multifactorial experiments in addition to data collection and analysis. We will demonstrate high-throughput material science concepts applied to development of complex concentrated alloys (CCAs). By harnessing computational modeling and automating processes, material discovery, synthesis, characterization, and testing can be rapidly accelerated.

070 - Development of Localized Laser Preheating of AA6061 Powder as a Selective Laser Melting Technique to Improve Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Parts
Conner Larocque, Lehigh University

AA6xxx series aluminum alloys have long been used in industrial applications for their high strength-to-weight ratio, weldability, and relatively low cost. While there is industrial interest in additive manufacturing (AM) of high-strength aluminum alloys, the process comes with several technical challenges stemming from AA6xxx series material properties. While some selective laser melting (SLM) machines are equipped with heated powder systems, many do not operate at optimal temperatures for aluminum alloys. The research aims to develop novel methods of reducing thermal gradients in selective laser melting of AA6061 via localized laser preheating of the powder bed to limit micro crack formation. Local laser preheating consists of sequential low-energy passes to add heat to desired areas. The effectiveness of this process and its contribution to the AM process were then evaluated through microstructure analysis as well as mechanical testing.

127 - Fabrication of W-Y2O3 Composites by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Spark Plasma Sintering
Jongmin Byun, Seoul National University of Science and Technology

Oxide-dispersion-strengthened tungsten (ODS-W) is the most promising structural materials for military, aerospace and nuclear industries because of their excellent mechanical properties and stability at high temperature. However, conventional mechanical milling methods have reached certain limits in further improving the properties of W and its alloys. In this study, with the aim of synthesizing W based composite powder with homogeneously dispersed yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles, a novel process methodology combining ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and subsequent hydrogen reduction has been described. Our results reveal that the W-Y2O3 composite powders consisted of multiple primary particles of approximately 30 nm with a three-dimensional network and are of high purity. TEM and XPS analysis results demonstrated that Y2O3 nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed into the tungsten matrix. In comparison with pure W sintered body, the W-Y2O3 composite showed a refined grain structure, higher relative density and Vickers hardness, and the combination of an intergranular and a transgranular fracture mode and these were mainly attributed to the homogeneous dispersion of Y2O3 nanoparticles. Our work shows that ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and subsequent hydrogen reduction is a promising method for preparing high quality ODS-W with high density, fine grains and uniformly dispersed strengthening phase nanoparticles.

135 - On the Effect of Building Platform Material on Laser-Powder Bed Fusion of a Ni-Base Superalloy HAYNES® 282®V
Abdul Shaafi Shaikh, EOS Finland

Additive manufacturing (AM) by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) involves melting of layers of powder onto a substrate, called a building platform. Due to cost or convenience considerations, building platform materials rarely match the LPBF material, especially for high temperature materials. To ensure tolerances in component geometries, AM components are often stress-relieved / heat-treated while still attached to the building platform. It is therefore important to understand the effect of dissimilar building platform materials on properties of the built-up material. These effects may be particularly important for high performance materials such as Ni-base superalloys used for critical applications in the aerospace and energy industries. To investigate this effect, samples of a Ni-base superalloy HAYNES® 282® were built onto a carbon steel building platform in several configurations. The samples were removed from the building platform after heat treatment and subjected to detailed composition analysis and microstructural characterization to investigate the effect of the building platform material on the properties of the additively manufactured part. Room temperature and high temperature tensile testing were used to characterize the material. Results showed no risk of large-scale chemical composition change, or mechanical property degradation of built-up material from on-platform heat treatment.

145 - Binder Jet Printing of Ti-6-Al-4V with Ultra-Fine Microstructure
Nathan Jump, University of Utah

Binder Jet Printing (BJP) has recently emerged as a feasible manufacturing method for small to large scale parts, but currently, the full capabilities of this technology have some restrictions. Titanium is one of the most desirable materials used in manufacturing due to its high specific strength, high ductility, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility, yet at this time, titanium still presents a plethora of difficulties that impede its scaled production via BJP. Many of these difficulties are rooted in the fact that powder metallurgy (PM) Ti parts often have too coarse of a microstructure to compete with its wrought counterpart. Therefore, by integrating the Hydrogen Sintering and Phase Transformation (HSPT) process into BJP there is an opportunity to produce relatively low-cost PM Ti parts with comparable strength and ductility. The following research is a summary of the integration of HSPT with BJP along with the improvements provided by hot isostatic pressing (HIP).

Poster C: Properties


105 - Use of Artificial Intelligence to Characterize the Rheological Properties of Water Atomized Powders Developed for Laser Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing
Gabrielle Laramée, Laval University

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) requires the use of powders having good fluidity, which are usually produced by gas atomization. Although water atomized powders can be tailored to achieve rheological properties like those of gas atomized ones, a single powder can exhibit a wide range of particle morphologies. Herein, the objective was to use machine learning (ML) to correlate the distribution of particle morphologies with the rheological properties of several powder lots. The ML pipeline employs an unsupervised algorithm to group together visually similar particles, creating a particle shape distribution for a given powder. Contrary to traditional image analysis, the proposed methodology could be used to understand how the presence of certain types of particles impacts the rheological properties of a powder. This work shows how ML represents a powerful tool to optimize the fluidity of powders for LPBF, thus contributing to the manufacture of higher quality parts.

165 - Process-Microstructure-Property Relationships in Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Non-Spherical Ti-6Al-4V Powder
Mohammadreza Asherloo, Illinois Institute of Technology

An investigation of process-microstructure-property relationships in Ti-6Al-4V parts processed using laser powder bed fusion of non-spherical powder showed full control over porosity content, surface roughness, microstructure, texture, and hardness. Increasing laser scan speed from 400 mm/s to 1500 mm/s eliminated the keyhole porosities and enhanced relative density to ~99.8 %. Also, the surface roughness (Sa) decreased from 119 μm to 21.8 μm. Microstructural observations showed that the primary grains were refined, and their shape factor increased from ~2.5 to ~5. Additionally, the hardness reached a maximum of 390 HV0.5 when the scan speed was 1250 mm/s. An increase in laser power from 225 W to 370 W slightly changed the Sa between 16.2 - 21.43 μm. Additionally, the hardness increased from ~355 HV0.5 to ~383 HV0.5 with increasing laser power. Synchrotron X-ray high speed imaging also showed the direct correlation between the melt pool depth and the texture intensity.

 

PowderMet2022/AMPM2022

 

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