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Poster Program

 

INTERNATIONAL POSTERS dealing with various aspects of PM and particulate materials technologies will be displayed daily starting on Monday morning. Authors will be available at their posters for discussion Monday (5:30–7:00 p.m.) during the PM Evening Alehouse. Manuscripts submitted from poster authors will be published in the conference proceedings.

“Outstanding Poster” and “Poster of Merit” awards will be given by the Poster Awards Committee for displays that best meet the established criteria. Award ribbons will be posted prior to the designated discussion period on Monday.

National Science Foundation, MPIF, and CPMT/Axel Masen student grant recipients' abstract titles are in burgundy.  Click the title to see when they will be presenting thier grant TNT.

Poster A: Materials               Poster B: Processing               Poster C: Properties

Poster A: Materials

040 - Design and Rapid Verification of Alloys Suitable for Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process for Industrial Application Using Machine Learning Models 
Evelyn Quansah, Southern University and A&M

In contrast to traditional manufacturing methods, additive manufacturing laser powder bed fusion (AM-LPBF) expands design flexibility through its digital process chain and material incorporation techniques. This technology has been widely adopted in asset-heavy sectors prioritizing enhanced product functionality over higher production costs. However, the processing of commercial alloys through LPBF encounters persistent challenges, due to the emergence of solidification cracking which impacts the alloy’s printability. Experimental and simulation approaches adopted in finding the printability of alloys are expensive and time-consuming, particularly for parts produced using AM-LPBF.

In recent studies, Artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as machine learning (ML) have been employed by many researchers as a strategic approach to address the constraints inherent in simulation and empirical material design methodologies. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, there currently exists no established machine learning (ML) framework designed for predicting the printability of metal alloys by AM-LPBF.

This study, for the first time, proposes the integration of seven ML techniques, obtained historical data, the adoption of generative AI models such as VAE and GAN for data augmentation, and further forecast the printability of alloys suitable for the LPBF process through an optimized well-performed model.  Subsequently, the selected optimized ML model will be validated with NASA novel alloys designed for high burnt-resistant and tensile strength applications, to test the model’s sensitivity.

054 - Coating Additively Manufactured Steels for Corrosion Protection
Pauline Smith, U.S. Army Research Laboratory

Additive manufacturing (AM) has the promise of reducing costs, improving mission readiness, and reducing logistical burdens associated with fabricating metal components for use in multiple platforms, tactical systems, or vehicles.  However, little effort has been put into understanding corrosion processes or identifying corrosion mitigation schemes specific to metal AM parts.  The research will address this need by testing and demonstrating non-chrome pretreatments, coating solutions, and identifying material combinations optimized for AM non-stainless steels parts on military platforms using Laser Powder Bed fusion (LPBF). The LPBF is one method of 3D printing for metal AM that can deliver optimized, complex geometries and intricate designs for numerous Army research programs. Applying this technology at the point of need is critical for lightweighting, sustainability of legacy systems, as well as production of new parts. The AM high strength, steel coupons will be fabricated and post processed for coating application. The primary goal is to understand the corrosion behavior of AM steel in the context of microstructural defects that form due to the rapid solidification rates inherent to the AM process and demonstrate a chrome-free, electro-coat post-treatment, effective at providing corrosion resistant metal. This will enable engineering authorities to develop AM specific pretreatment specifications and coating requirements for AM metals to expedite adoption of novel AM methods to facilitate increased mission readiness through use of on-demand production techniques.

Poster B: Processing

039 - Exploring the Effect of Different Scanning Strategies on the Microstructure in IN718 Fabrication via Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion
Shadman Tahsin Nabil, University of Texas at El Paso

Additive Manufacturing (AM) of metals is gaining popularity in the aerospace and defense sectors due to its ability to reduce weight and make unique parts. One significant challenge in metal AM process is anisotropy, which refers to the variation in material properties in different directions. Sometimes this can require extra post-processing techniques like Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or Heat Treatments (HT) to fix. This research aims to minimize anisotropy in the popular Ni-based superalloy IN718 during the Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion fabrication process itself by implementing specific scanning strategies during the melt step of the metal. The results suggest the possibility of different scanning strategies to influence the metal solidification rate, enhancing control over the transition from columnar to equiaxed structures in the build direction.

041 - Investigation of Residual Stresses in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Manufactured Ti64 Specimens After Machining Using X-ray Diffraction
Cristian Banuelos, University of Texas at El Paso

This study focuses on the characterization and analysis of residual stresses in Titanium alloy Ti64 samples produced via Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) technology and subsequently machined. Residual stresses play a critical role in determining the mechanical performance and dimensional stability of additively manufactured components. Understanding and mitigating these stresses is imperative for ensuring the reliability and structural integrity of parts in aerospace and biomedical applications. A series of Ti64 specimens were manufactured using LPBF, followed by precision machining to simulate post-processing conditions commonly encountered in aerospace components. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to assess the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses induced during the machining process. The study utilized non-destructive techniques to evaluate the depth and spatial variations of the residual stress fields.

071 - Production of Soft Magnetic Composite Material Using Cold Sintering Technique
Linsea Foster, Penn State University

Soft magnetic composites are materials under development for replacement of 2D laminates in electric motors. Maximization of the soft magnetic properties reduces the necessary volume and mass of material required, reducing cost and size in products such as electric vehicles. SMC production using electrically insulating coating poses an inherent tradeoff as retention of this coating is difficult while improving strength through annealing. This study investigates production of SMCs via cold sintering technique in the hopes to form insulating yet relatively strong SMC toroids. The technique, which utilizes surface modification of powders as an initial step towards strengthening of the material, is here used to also form an electrically insulating coating that gives the material its soft magnetic properties. Subsequently, powders are warm compacted to increase the strength of the material. Subsequent low-temperature heat treatment may also be utilized to further improve strength while minimizing breakdown of the insulating coating. Sample strength is tested using three-point bending tests, and microstructure is examined using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron dispersive energy spectroscopy. Magnetic properties, including core losses, are measured through AC, DC, and permeability measurements.

072 - Implementation of Cold Sintering Technique for Green Phase Machining of Sinter Hardened Steel
Linsea Foster, Penn State University

Machining of green phase powder metal products is a technique which remains underdeveloped, particularly for sinter hardened steels. Sinter hardened steels possess high tool wear and damage compared to other powder metal products. Implementation of machining these powder products prior to the hardening process would significantly cut down on wear and damage, extending the life of tooling, and therefor reducing material use, cost, and environmental impact. Conventionally prepared green phase products possess low strength, making it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to machine without damage. Cold sintering is a technique under development for increasing green strength that may aid in the progression towards green phase machining for sinter hardened steels. This study focuses on use of hydrated phosphate coating for FLC-4608 steel. Three-point bending tests and hardness tests are performed, along with analysis of dimensional changes for machined samples of green phase versus sintered phase. Additionally, microstructure is viewed to ensure the retention of the typical sinter hardened FLC-4608 microstructure for cold sintered samples.

097 - Implementation of Cold Sintering Technique for Green Phase Machining of Sinter Hardened Steel
Kevin Caballero,  University of Texas at El Paso

This study focuses on advancing binder jetting technology through a systematic investigation into printing and sintering parameters, complemented by simulation validation. Utilizing the Binder Jetting Innovent+ system, the research aims to optimize printing parameters for enhanced densities and geometric precision in components with diverse shapes.

The development of printing parameters involves a methodical exploration of variables like layer thickness and binder saturation. Following printing, a Gerolite tube furnace is employed for sintering, a crucial step in transforming green parts into fully dense components. Various atmospheres during sintering are explored to understand their impact on surface properties.

Coupled with experimental work, sintering simulations are conducted for result validation. This integrated approach seeks to provide insights into the optimization of binder jetting processes, contributing to advancements in density and geometric accuracy of printed components for diverse applications in additive manufacturing.

Poster C: Properties

043 - Effects of Low-Temperature Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Cu-10Sn Alloys Fabricated with Laser Powder Bed Fusion​
Edem Honu, Southern University and A&M

Cu-10Sn alloys fabricated using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process possess higher mechanical and physical performance than alloys built by conventional methods. However, Cu-10Sn alloys made using LPBF can also exhibit defects like point defects and dislocations. To mitigate these, a low-temperature heat treatment was examined. This study assessed the impact of such heat treatment on LPBF-made Cu-10Sn alloys. The properties of these alloys were studied, both in the as-fabricated (AF) condition and after low-temperature treatments at 140, 180, 220, 260, and 300°C. Notably, the low-temperature heat treatment did not alter phase structures or microstructures significantly. Among the heat-treated samples, the one treated at 180 °C showed the highest hardness. All heat-treated samples outperformed AF samples in thermal diffusivity. To understand atomic-level defects before and after heat treatment, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy tests were executed. Transmission electron microscopy will further explore hardness and thermal diffusivity variations in AF and heat-treated samples.

044 - Effects of HIP Post-Processing on the Fatigue Life Behavior Under 4-Point (Flexural) Bending of L-PBF Ti-6Al-4V 
Diego Ariza, University of Texas at El Paso

The fatigue performance of Additive Manufacturing (AM) Ti-6Al-4V has been extensively studied under normal axial conditions; however, there are only a few studies that have analyzed the fatigue behavior of this alloy under bending conditions. AM has shown the presence of defects, such as gas porosity in powder, which can detrimentally affect the fatigue performance of the samples by acting as stress concentrators. In the past, researchers have implemented the Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP) post-processing method in AM to minimize the presence of porosity and improve the mechanical properties of the samples. This project analyzes the fatigue life behavior of LPBF Ti-6Al-4V subjected to three different HIP treatments, including standard, low temperature/high pressure (LTHP), and super beta HIP during 4-point bending testing. Additionally, an annealed heat treatment was incorporated in the analysis. During the study, optical technologies were implemented to examine the microstructure of the samples. Specimens were also subjected to tensile and hardness testing to study their mechanical properties. Fracture morphologies and stress-life (S-N) curves of the Ti-6Al-4V samples concerning the fatigue behavior were also analyzed. Preliminary results from the 4-point bending fatigue test showed that the annealed group obtained the best performance overall. Comparing the HIP groups, the LTHP group performs better than the standard and super beta HIP groups. Results suggest that implementing specific HIP post-processing on AM samples can improve the fatigue performance of Ti-6Al-4V under 4-point bending testing.

046 - Comparison Analysis of Heat Treated LPBF Ti6Al4V and Wrought Fabricated Titanium
Luis  Márquez, University of Texas at El Paso

Additive manufacturing of Ti64Al4V alloy through the process of Laser Powder Bed Fusion allows the production of complicated topological elements, making it a viable alternative to overcome the limitations of conventional manufacturing processes. To advance further incorporation of this process into the aerospace, automotive, and biomedical industries, it is necessary to verify that the material meets the demanding mechanical requirements defined by each sector. Therefore, it is required to determine the most adequate heat treatments for optimization of mechanical properties of this material. This investigation collects the results of a comparative analysis of post-process heat treatment of LPBF fabricated Ti64Al4V alloy with respect to wrought fabricated Ti64Al4V. Heat treatment in this study consists of standard hot isostatic pressing at 900 °C and 100Mpa with a 2hr dwell time, it was applied to 10 LPBF and 10 wrought fabricated samples. This resulted in 3 specimen variants: HIP LPBF, HIP wrought and as-purchased wrought. After conducting tensile and high cycle uniaxial fatigue tests, the performance of mechanical properties and stress-strain curves were analyzed for comparison between variants. Examination of microstructure was performed using optical microscopy on the cross section of polished pieces to assess whether the microstructure would further improve or remain unchanged, comparison and results were presented.

064 - Comparison Analysis of Heat Treated LPBF Ti-6Al-4V and Wrought Fabricated Titanium
Luis  Márquez, University of Texas at El Paso

Additive manufacturing (AM) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through the process of Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) allows the production of complex components not possible with conventional manufacturing processes. To advance further incorporation of this process into the aerospace, automotive, and biomedical industries, the material must meet mechanical requirements under dynamic loading defined by each sector. Therefore, this work presents an investigation of the effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) thermal treatments in the enhancement of fatigue performance of LPBF Ti-6A-l4V. The thermal treatments in this study were annealed, standard HIP, low-temperature + high-pressure HIP and super beta HIP. The fatigue experiments resulted in S-N curves defined by ten specimens for each heat treatment. The results are discussed in comparative analyses and showed super beta HIP having a superior fatigue endurance than standard HIP. In contrast, the annealed and low-temperature + high-pressure were outperformed. The discussion and analyses were supported by microstructural characterization and fractographs concluding this work.

099 - FT4 Powder Rheometer Characterization of Interplanetary Regolith Simulants
Wesley Combs, Rice University

Manned and unmanned space travel have historically had life cycle closeout phases where systems are decommissioned, samples are returned, and waste is disposed. This will change with the Artemis missions which promise to bring about the first long-term human presence on the Moon and eventually to Mars. Resources readily-available on extraterrestrial locations can be leveraged using in situ resource utilization (ISRU) techniques for areas such as additive manufacturing (AM). ISRU with space regolith can significantly reduce money and time expenses, especially when paired with AM methods like binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP). To determine the printability and design constraints associated with new materials, powder characterization on regolith simulants (materials that chemically approximate actual regolith) is necessary.

The FT4 Powder Rheometer was utilized to conduct dynamic, bulk, and shear tests on lunar and Martian regolith simulants. Flowability metrics such as basic flowability energy indicate powder behavior in a dynamic state. Bulk metrics such as permeability elucidate how the powder behaves as a static bulk. Shear metrics such as the flow function portray shear deformation under varying normal loads. These shear powder properties were used in Jenike equations to determine mass hopper flow at various hopper angles and outlet dimensions. BJ3DP suitability was determined by optimal powder property ranges and normalized means. Powder characterization is an important precursor to process design for new materials and will be integral for interplanetary ISRU additive manufacturing.

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