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Welcome to the SINTERING Self-Study Course

A Course on the Powder Metallurgy Sintering Process


Description           Course Outline            Instructor            User Policies            How to Watch Videos            Registration

This Self-Study Course provides the fundamental principles of the sintering process for powder metallurgy (PM) materials.  It is based on a graduate level course that was refined over many years. The Course emphasizes the theory of sintering but includes information on the sintering behavior of a wide variety of engineered materials: metals, alloys, composites, carbides, intermetallics, etc. The Course is intended for those involved with manufacturing, materials processing, engineering science, industrial engineering, and related disciplines such as chemical engineering. This technically in-depth Course provides valuable knowledge for career development. 

Target Audience
  • Aerospace and Materials Engineers
  • Mechanical, Industrial, Manufacturing, Process Engineers and Technologists
  • Quality Assurance Engineers and Technologists
  • Management and Overseers of Powder Metallurgy Organizations
Recommended Pre-Requisites 

A practical understanding of chemistry and physics is beneficial for the comprehension of fundamental principles provided in this course.

Duration of Course

This Course contains sixteen (16) pre-recorded segments that average 60 minutes each.  The Course will be open to the student for 3 months from the date of purchase.  

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of the Course, the student should be able to: 

  • Differentiate solid state, liquid phase, mixed phase, pressure-assisted, and field-assisted sintering
  • Define and illustrate several microstructure features and understand microstructure/property relationships
  • Understand the stages of sintering and micromechanics
  • Separate the roles and options for atmospheres and implement atmosphere management
  • Consider mathematical relationships to various metrics
  • Discuss the advantages of computer simulations based on early and current modeling simulations
Materials Included


  • Sintering Compilation I: Theory & Equipment Related
  • Sintering Compilation II: Process Alternatives
  • Sintering Compilation III: Effects on Materials 
Cost of Course - $950 per individual for less than 6 employees
                            $850 per individual for groups of 6-9 employees
                            $750 per individual for groups of 10 or more employees

                                    (Contact Stephanie Schember to register multiple employees.)

This Course contains sixteen (16) pre-recorded segments that average 60 minutes each.  Below is a listing of lectures with a short description of goals/objectives that will be defined within the lecture. 

Part 1, Introduction: introduction and definitions, sense of where industrial sintering arose, overview of applications and microstructures, justification for program and growth outline.

Part 2, Events During Sintering: stages of sintering, micromechanics – curvature and interfaces, thermodynamic and kinetic factors, transport mechanisms – diffusion, vapor, plastic, viscous, microstructure evolution depiction.

Part 3, Sintering Measurement Tools: show various tools used to measure sintering, reinforce by looking at example data and behavior, describe typical devices, relate (mathematically if possible) various metrics.

Part 4, Parametric Relations: interrelations of sintering monitors, illustrate role of adjustable parameters such as temperature, particle size, time, heating rate, …, show how monitors provide insight, few examples of under-sintering and over-sintering, use monitors to identify optimal sintering conditions.

Part 5, Microstructure Evolution: define and illustrate several microstructure features, show common pathways evident in microstructures, relate microstructure parameters, set up to understand property linkage to microstructure.

Part 6, Solid State Sintering: curvature gradients as driving force in porous solids, mass transport involved in solid state sintering, geometric progression and sintering stages, mathematical treatments and key relations.

Part 7, Liquid Phase Sintering: introduction to solid-liquid sintering options, thermodynamics, phases, solubility, and reactions, micromechanics and kinetics, microstructure evolution, coarsening, grain shape, mention some materials and applications.

Part 8, Mixed Phase Sintering: composites sintering behavior, bimodal mixtures, packing and sintering rules, chemical gradients, activated sintering, composition effects, predictions via the rule of mixtures.

Part 9, Pressure-Assisted Sintering: consider how pressure and temperature combine, mechanistic evaluation of diffusion, creep, plastic flow, outline variety of processes for densification, show examples of materials, cycles, and applications.

Part 10, Field-Assisted Sintering: historical remarks on the origin of the idea, action in an electric field, example cycles, practice today – materials, cycles, and applications, application details – sintered diamond.

Part 11, Atmospheres: identify roles and options for atmosphere, introduce thermodynamics and reactions, show positive effects and potential difficulties, atmosphere management, especially for metallic species.

Part 12, Sintering Hardware: heat transport, heat sources, furnaces; types, advantages and drawbacks, conveyance mechanisms, measurement and control options, substrates.

Part 13, Behavior / Properties: examine how sintering variables link to properties, structural materials, largely mechanical properties, various density, microstructure, composition cases, comment on application-property combinations.

Part 14, Computer Modeling: justification for modeling – computer simulation, illustrate early and current models, show component level (size and shape) predictions, identify problems and directions in modeling.

Part 15, Extra Examples: take up some “interesting extra topics”, highlight specific sintering cycles for various materials, comment on anisotropic effect of gravity.

Part 16, History of Sintering: context for key developments in sintering, historical timeline, building blocks, motivations and technical advances, identification of key actors, materials, and developments.

Professor Randall M. German

Rand German is Research Professor at San Diego State University, previously serving as dean of engineering research.

His PhD degree in Materials is from the University of California – Davis, following a MS in Metallurgical Engineering from The Ohio State University and BS in Materials Science and Engineering from San Jose State University. He is recognized as a distinguished alumnus from all three universities.
Rand held chaired professorships at Rensselaer Polytechnic, Penn State, and Mississippi State, and in the latter two positions headed large research centers, directing efforts funded at $59 million. He has authored more than a thousand articles, 21 books, and 25 patents, while being involved in forming twelve companies. Rand is recognized by professional organizations around the world and is a Fellow of three technical societies including APMI International.

Once you've registered (with the button above), you will be enrolled in the course and will receive an email confirmation within 24 business hours of registration.  You will then see a new button at the top of this page that says "Course Videos".  Click on this to link to view the course content.

User Agreement

To purchase a Self-Study Course, you must have a registered account with MPIF/APMI and be able to log into your account using your username and password. When you place your order, you are committing to the terms and conditions for the Course. All Intellectual Property Rights in the Course remain, the intellectual property of MPIF. You are not authorized to:

  • copy, modify, reproduce, re-publish, sub-license, sell, upload, broadcast, post, transmit or distribute any of the Course materials 
  • record on video or audio tape, relay by videophone or other means the Course 
  • use the Course materials in the provision of any other course or training
  • remove any copyright or other notice of MPIF on Course materials
  • modify, adapt, merge, translate, disassemble, decompile, reverse engineer (save to the extent permitted by law) any software forming part of the Course

*Note: Federal law provides severe civil and criminal penalties for the unauthorized reproduction, distribution, or exhibition of copyrighted media, such as publications, videos, and images. 

Breach of the above shall allow us to immediately terminate these terms and conditions with you and cease to provide you with any services, including but not limited to access to the Course. 

In consideration of the fees paid by you, we grant to you limited, non-transferable, non-exclusive permission to use the Course materials for the sole purpose of completing the online Course.

Recommended Computer and Internet Requirements per Vimeo 

The Vimeo website and player are supported on most popular desktop and mobile platforms. We strongly recommend keeping your device’s operating system and browser as up-to-date as possible to avoid any bugs or potential security vulnerabilities.

The quality of your video playback experience is largely dependent on the download speed you have from your internet service provider (ISP). Keep in mind that your overall internet speed can vary depending on many factors, including but not limited to, the time of day, Wi-Fi performance, other devices/users utilizing your connection, and the strength of the signal provided by your ISP.

Below you will find minimum requirements for accessing vimeo.com and playing the Course videos.

Download Speeds 

  • 10 Mbps minimum download bandwidth
  • Hardwired ethernet connections are preferred over wireless (Wi-Fi or cellular)
  • Test your Internet speed using a service such as www.speedtest.net 

Desktop OS and Browser 
The following browsers and versions on Windows 7 or later or macOS Sierra (10.12.6) or later:

  • Chrome 30+ (has automatic updates), Firefox 27+ (has automatic updates)*, Microsoft Edge, Safari 9+ 

*H.264 video (required for viewing Vimeo videos) is only supported in Firefox for Windows 7 and later. Firefox versions on Windows XP are no longer supported for playback.

Firewalls and whitelisted domains
Ensure the following ports are open on your network for playback:

  • TCP/UDP 80 (HTTP)
  • TCP/UDP 443 (HTTPS)

In addition, if you are on a corporate network (office, university, hotel, etc.) that restricts access to certain websites or domains, you should have the following domains whitelisted:

  • *.vimeo.com
  • *.vimeocdn.com
  • *.magisto.com
  • *.akamaized.net
  • *.cloudfront.net 

All Self-Study Course purchases are considered final.  However, a full refund may be provided if requested in writing to MPIF within 14 days of purchase of a Course, provided the Course materials had not been accessed more than one time during that 14-day period.   


Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) makes no representations or warranties about the accuracy or suitability of any information in the presentation(s)/course and related materials (such as books, videos, presentation documents, and recordings); all such content is provided to registrants on an “as is” basis. MPIF HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES and Conditions Express Implied Statutory or Otherwise REGARDING THE CONTENTS OF THESE MATERIALS, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ALL WARRANTIES OF TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  MPIF is not liable for any claims, losses, or damages of any kind arising out of or in any way related to this information provided by presenters. MPIF hereby disclaims all liability for any claims, losses, or damages of any kind in connection with use or application of these materials. The information contained in the presentation(s)/course and related materials is not intended to constitute legal professional or technical advice or the rendering of professional services of any kind. Advice received via the MPIF presentation(s)/course, recordings, and related materials, should not be relied upon for personal, medical, legal or financial decisions and you should consult an appropriate professional for specific advice tailored to your situation.