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Advances in Powder Metallurgy
& Particulate Materials—2005


Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference

On Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, June 19–23, Montréal, Canada

Contains 154 technical papers encompassing over 1,750 pages in a fully searchable CD-ROM in a format that preserves the original color in all figures

MPIF, 2005            ISBN: 0-9762057-2-6              Item #2005CD

List Price $800    SALE PRICE $200


Volume I: Parts 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5

Part 1—Design & Modeling of PM Materials, Components & Processes

State of the North American PM Industry—2005
David L. Schaefer and C. James Trombino

Verifying the Master Sintering Curve on an Industrial Furnace
Deborah C. Blaine, Seong-Jin Park, Randall M. German, Jerry LaSalle
and Hill Nandi

A Creep Model for Distortion Control during Sintering and Infiltration
Brittan S. Pratta, Howard A. Kuhn and James P. Bandstrab

Computer Modelling of Distortion and Densification during LPS of High-Performance Materials
Deborah C. Blaine, Randall M. German and Seong-Jin Park

Constitutive Modeling for Powder Compaction and Densification
Youssef Hammi, Tonya W. Stone and Mark F. Horstemeyer

Understanding Strength of Powder Compacts Using a Detailed Multi-Scale Simulation
Antonios Zavaliangos and Adam T. Procopio

Finite Element Analysis of Capping Mechanisms during Pharmaceutical Powder Compaction
Chuan-Yu. Wu, Bruno C. Hancock, James A. Elliott, Serena.M. Best,
A. Craig Bentham and William Bonfield

Column Structure Growth Simulation of Magnetic Particles by Distinct Element Method Coupled with Magneto-FEM
Fujio Tsumori, Masamichi Hirata and Susumu Shima

Effect of Porosity on the Transformation Kinetics of P/M Steels
V.S. Warke, R.D. Sisson, Jr., and M.M. Makhlouf

A Model for the Consolidation of Ultrafine Metal Powders
Randall M. German, Deborah Blaine and Eugene Olevsky

Part 2—Particulate Production

Visualization of Enhanced Primary Atomization for Powder Size Control
I.E. Anderson, R.L. Terpstra and R.S. Figliola

Atomization of Melts Exhibiting Very Low Surface Tensions
Joseph Tunick Strauss

Hot Gas Atomisation—Economic and Engineering Aspects
John J. Dunkley

Press Feeding Systems for the 21st Century
Sylvain Lemezec

Production of Nanocrystalline WC/Co Composite Powder Using a High-Energy Dual-Drive Planetary Mill
Brady G. Butler, Jun Lu, Z. Zak Fang and Raj K. Rajamani

Characterization of Fe-Based Alloy Droplets Produced by the Uniform-Droplet Spray Process
Suresh Kumar S. Pillai, Volha V. Bialaiuskaya, Teiichi Ando and Tatsuya Shoji


Part 3—Compaction & Forming Processes

Segregation-Free Iron Mixed Powder Containing an Excellent Lubricant Effective for Reducing the Ejection Force at Compaction
Tomoshige Ono, Yukiko Ozaki and Satoshi Uenosono

Image Sensing and Intelligent Control of Deposit Dimensions in Spray Forming
Chengsong Cui, Yingdong Qu, Sanben Chen and Qingchun Li

Applying Nanoparticles via Direct-Write Technology for Industrial Applications
James W. Sears and Jacob Colvin

Three-Dimensional Printing for the Dental Industry
Anita L. Hancox, Howard A. Kuhn, Jianxin Liu and Clint Pampus

An Investigation of Sintering Nylon 12 and Carbon Black Powders Using IR Radiation
P. Erasenthiran and N. Hopkinson

Innovative Process to Die Compact Injection Molding Powders
Ravi K. Enneti, Sundar V. Atre and Randall M. German

Reducing Ejection Forces by Tailoring the Balanced Die
Mark Richman, Jayant Khambekar and Amanda Learned

Pressing Challenging Parts on a Production Scale by Using Die-Wall Lubrication Technology
P. Lemieux, L. Azzi, Y. Thomas, S. Pelletier, P.E. Mongeon and S. St-Laurent

Shaping Stainless Steel Powders Using Die-Wall Lubrication
Y. Thomas, L. Azzi, T. Baazi and S. Pelletier

Evaluation of Process Concepts for Manufacturing High-Density Multi-Level PM Components by High Velocity Compaction
Dirk Sterkenburg and Lars Troive

New Multi-Function Sizing Centre (MFC)
Albert Rundel and Peter Rauch

Using Binder-Treatment Technology for High-Performance Steel Powder Mixes
Sylvain St-Laurent, Claude Gélinas, Yannig Thomas and Lhoucine Azzi

Prevention of Green Part Cracks by the Dorst Control System
Wolfgang Schübl and Walter Rau

Trends in CNC Powder Compaction Presses
Norbert Nies and Detlef Peters

The Production of Foamable Precursors via Direct Powder Rolling Technique
Alexander I. Litvintsev, Alexander A. Filatov and Sergei A. Litvintsev

Isostatic Powder Compaction Process with Bingham Semi-Solid/Fluid Mold Material
Fujio Tsumori and Susumu Shima

Direct Metal Laser Sintering In Rapid Manufacturing
Juha Kotila, Tatu Syvanen, Jouni Hanninen, Maria Latikka and Olli Nyrhila

Effect of Particle Characteristics on the Rheology of Polymer-Metallic Particle Suspensions
Louis Philippe Lefebvre, Richard Gendron, Stephane Ruggeri, Christelle Laurin, Pierre Sammut and Maxime Gauthier

High-Green-Strength Mixture for Green Machining
Takayasu Fujiura, Kazuhisa Fujisawa, Hironori Suzuki and Satoshi Masuhara

Higher-Green-Strength Materials for Green Handling
Patrick King, George Poszmik and Robert Causton

Utilizing an Advanced Binder System for Achieving High Densities in Hybrid and Diffusion-Alloyed Materials
Ian W. Donaldson


Part 4—Powder Injection Molding (Metals & Ceramics)


Fiber Breakage in Processing Powder Injection Molded Metal Matrix Composites
F. Ahmad, F.M. Hashim and O. Mamat

Processing of MIM Co-28Cr-6Mo
John L. Johnson and Lye King Tan

Comparison of Thermal-Expansion Response Between MIM and Wrought Fe-Ni Alloys
Matt Bulger, Haorong Zhang, Mike Stucky, Tom Stephenson, Taj Singh and Frank Vultaggio

Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding—Technical Status and Future Challenges
Randall M. German and Susan K. Ferchalk

Bi-Material Components Using Powder Injection Molding: Densification, Shape Complexity, and Performance Attributes
Randall M. German, Donald F. Heaney and John L. Johnson

Thermal Performance of MIM Thermal-Management Device
Velda Josef and Lye-King Tan 

Study of Evolution of Pore Structure During Water Leaching Using PEG-PMMA Binder System
M.H. Ismail, M.A. Omar, N. Muhamad and A. Jumahat

The Effects of MIM Processing Parameters on Variations in Part Weights and Dimensions
J. Alan Sago and Joseph W. Newkirk

Metal Feedstocks for Isolated Micro Parts Made by PIM
Steffen Rath, Lothar Merz, Klaus Plewa, Robert Ruprecht and Juergen Hausselt

The Effect of PEG/PMMA Composite Binder System on the Powder Injection Moulding of WC-Co Hardmetal Components
Nutthita Chuankrerkkul, Peter F. Messer, Hywel A. Davies and Bryan Ellis

Part 5—Pre-Sintering & Sintering


Updates to Our Definition of Sintering
Robert E. Rector

Sintering Atmospheres for Improved Properties
Daniel H. Herring

Effect of the Wet-Hydrogen Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 95W-3.15Ni-1.35Fe-0.5Co Alloy
Mao-bing Shuai and Xian-rong Li

Sintering of Aluminium in Various Atmospheres
G.B. Schaffer and S.H. Huo

Effect of Temperature on the Flammability Limits of Sintering Atmospheres
John Dwyer, Jr., Thomas Philips and James G. Hansel

Industrial Performance of Low-Reactive Atmospheres on Sintering Furnaces
S. Bockel-Macal, H. Davin, D. Domergue, B. Hofmann and V. Kruzhanov

High-Temperature Sintering—a Cost-Effective Way to Future High-Performance Materials
Dave Milligan, Ulf Engström and Steven Smith

Effect of High-Temperature Sintering Conditions on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of FLN4-4405 P/M Steel
Howard Sanderow and Leander Pease

Supersolidus Liquid-Phase Sintering of Blended Powders
Jianxin Liu and Howard A. Kuhn

Sinter-Hardening Material Options—What Grade Should I Select?
Heron A. Rodrigues and Tim Liu

Effect of Increased Post-Sinter Cooling Rate on Properties of Ferrous P/M Materials with Low Hardenability
Roger H. Trefzger

Dimensional Precision of Sinter-Hardenable Steels
Taj Singh and Thomas F. Stephenson

Properties of Sinter-Hardeneable Molybdenum Steels Admixed with Extra-Fine Ni Powder
Thomas F. Stephenson, Marina Korotkin and Taj Singh




Volume II: Parts 6, 7, 8 & 9

Part 6—Secondary Operations


Machining of Chromium-Alloyed PM Steels
Olof Andersson and Sigurd Berg

The Effect of Steam Oxide Processes on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of P/M Steels
Howard Sanderow and Leander Pease

Mg-Si Coating Deposited by Glow-Discharge Sputtering in Employing Mg-Si Sintered Materials
Katsuyoshi Kondoh, Takashi Yamaguchi, Tadashi Serikawa, Hideki Oginuma, Kousei Nakamura and Yoshisada Michiura

Effect of Heat Treatment and Case Carburizing High-Density P/M Steels
G. Fillari and M. Marucci

Effect of Case Carburizing on Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Endurance Limits of P/M Steels
George Fillari, Thomas Murphy and Igor Gabrielov

Local Modification of P/M Parts to Fully Densify and Enhance Properties
Joseph Newkirk, Anand Jambunathan, Julie Ply and Rajiv Mishra

Quantification of Selective Surface Densification in P/M Components
Lorenz S. Sigl, Günter Rau and Patrice Delarbre

Infiltration of Ferrous P/M Compact with Copper Infiltrants
Jessu Joys and Sydney Luk

Infiltration of Ferrous P/M Parts with Infiltrating Paste
Mark K. Barr, Anil V. Nadkarni, Gary L. Cowan and Heron Rodrigues

An Investigation of Alternative Copper-Infiltration Techniques
Kent Byrd


Part 7—Materials

High-Density Processing of a New Cr-Bearing Steel

Patrick King, Bruce Lindsley and Ian Donaldson

A New Cr-Bearing Alloy for High-Performance Applications
Patrick King and Bruce Lindsley

New Cr-Mn Alloyed Sintered Steel for High-Performance Applications
P. Beiss

The Effect of Processing Variables on the Porosity of PM Mn Steels
Andrzej Cias, Maciej Sulowski, Hanna Frydrych and Jerzy Frydrych

Vacuum Heat Treatment and High-Pressure-Gas Quenching of Cr-Mn P/M Steels
R. Shivanath, M. Case, N. Colangelo

Pre-alloyed Boron in P/M Stainless Steels
Chris Schade, John Schaberl, Sanjay N. Thakur and Vaidehi C. Dongre

Means to Improve Machinability of Sintered Stainless Steel
Prasan K. Samal, Owe Mars and Ingrid Hauer

Development of a High-Strength Dual-Phase P/M Stainless Steel
Chris Schade, Alan Lawley and Eva Wagner

Tool Steel for Rapid Tooling
Jianxin Liu and Howard A. Kuhn

3DPrinting and Infiltration of Tool Steels
Brian Kernan and Howard Kuhn

Powder Metallurgy of Gamma Titanium Aluminides
V.S. Moxson and V.A. Duz

High-Temperature Interaction of Titanium with Ceramic Materials
Maxime Gauthier and Eric Baril

High-Strengthened Magnesium Alloys by Employing Coarse Powder with Refined Grains
Katsuyoshi Kondoh, Masaki Sumida, Hideki Oginuma, Shigeru Nishigori, Yoshinori Goho, Katsuhito Itakura, Shuji Shiozaki and Kantarou Kaneko

Interface Microstructure and Properties of Graphite(C)/Ni-Al-Ti Alloy Bonded by Vacuum Diffusion
Shiquan Zhou, Lijun Zhang, Weihao Xiong and Chou Fan

Part 8—Refractory Metals, Carbides & Ceramics


Machining Test Results on New TCHP Process Lot Nº 1
R.E. Toth, J.M. Keane and I. Smid

Microstructure-Property Relationships in Ultra-Hard AlMgB14
Justin S. Peters, Bruce A. Cook, Joel L. Harringa, Alan M. Russell and Alfred Kracher

Improved Hardness and Toughness of AlMgB14 Composites Through Addition of Reinforcement Phases
Justin S. Peters, Bruce A. Cook, Joel L. Harringa, Alan M. Russell and Atiq Ahmed

Sinter + HIP of Ultrafine WC-Co Hardmetals
A. Ordóñez, R. González and J.M. Sánchez

Effect of the W-W Contiguity on Conductivity of W-Cu Composite
Gil-Su Kim, Young Jung Lee, Baek-Hee Lee, Dae-Gun Kim, Deok-Soo Kim and Young Do Kim

Influence of Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of M35 HSS-Based Cermets
Jaroslaw Indra and Jan Lezanski

Residually Stressed Multiple-Layer Tungsten Heavy Alloys by Metal Injection Molding
Donald F. Heaney and Timothy Eden

Powder Injection Molding of Tungsten Heavy Alloy
Animesh Bose and Robert J. Dowding

Far-from-Equilibrium Processing of ZrO2(3Y2O3)–Al2O3 Nano-Composites
V. Shukla, R.K. Sadangi and B.H. Kear

Part 9—Advanced Particulate Materials & Processes


ODS Alloy by CVD-Coated Powders
Asit Biswas, Andrew J. Sherman, Daniel King and R.L. Klueh

The Influence of the Thermal-Contact Resistance on Thermal Behavior of Copper-Carbon Composites
E. Neubauer, I. Smid, S. Chotikaprakhan, D. Dietzel, B.K. Bein and G. Korb

Compaction and Bonding in Alloyed Powders Delivered by Air-Gas Dynamic Spray Technology
Roman Maev and Evgeny Leshchinsky

Characterization of Powder Mixtures for Gas Dynamic Spraying (GDS) by Shear Compression
V. Leshchynsky, E. Strumban and R.G. Maev

Fabrication of H13/Cu-Graded Materials Using High-Power Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser
Valter Estevão Beal, Poonjolai Erasenthiran, Neil Hopkinson, Carlos Henrique Ahrens and Phill Dickens

Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment
Sudip Bhattacharya, Jerrod Roalstad, Stanley M. Howard, Aaron Costello and James W. Sears

Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Gas-Atomized Powders of Mixed Rare Earth-Iron-Boron
Nicholas L. Buelow, Iver E. Anderson, R.W. McCallum, Matthew Kramer, Wei Tang and Kevin Dennis

The Influence of the Type of Resin on the Resistance to Environmental Factors of Nd-Fe-B Dielectromagnets
Barbara Slusarek, Andrzej Nowakowski, Jozef Z. Gromek and Piotr Gawrys

On-Demand Droplet Spotter for Formation of Micropattern Using Electrostatic Force
Fujio Tsumori, Hiroyuki Ogawa and Susumu Shima

Properties and Processing of Improved SMC Materials
C. Gélinas, S. Pelletier, P. Lemieux and L. Azzi

Super-Low Core-Loss Soft Magnetic Materials by P/M Method
Toru Maeda, Haruhisa Toyoda, Kazuhiro Hirose, Naoto Igarashi and Takao Nishioka

Processing and Properties of Iron-Based Metallic Foams
Louis Philippe Lefebvre, Maxime Gauthier and Mario Patry

Development of Thin Macro-Porous Metallic Support Structures for Hydrogen Separation Membranes
R.L. Terpstra and I.E. Anderson

Novel Process for High-Porosity Closed-Cell Metal Foams Production
Toru Shimizu and Kunio Matsuzaki

 Volume III: Parts 10, 11, 12 & 13


Part 10—Material Properties

Effect of Nickel Type on Properties of Binder-Treated Blends
L. Azzi, T. Stephenson, S. St-Laurent and S. Pelletierl

Improved Property and Dimensional Consistency Achieved Using Bonded Premixes
Peter Thorne, David Milligan, Ulf Engström, Paul Hofecker, Denis O’Keefe, Daniel Edman, Roger Neyman and Shawn Miller

Investigation of Compaction and Sintering of an FN-0208 Binder-Treated Powder
Tetsuya Sawayama

Full-Density Properties of Low-Alloy Steels
Michael L. Marucci and Arthur J. Rawlings

Effect of Composition on Mechanical Properties of Copper Steel Parts Made by Powder Forging Technology
Ali Haerian Ardakani, Jalil Vahdati Khaki and Hossein Amini Mashhadi

Characterization and Use of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder
Adam J. Benish, Aditya Sathaye, Philip Nash, Richard Anderson and Thomas Zwitter

Rolling-Contact Fatigue of Surface-Densified Gears
Roger Lawcock

Porosity and Microstructure in P/M Alloys: Critical Review of Their Effects on Fatigue and Fatigue Crack Growth
Diana A. Lados and Diran Apelian

Fatigue Crack Growth of Prealloy Fe-0.85Mo-2Mi-0.6C Steels With a Homogeneous Microstructure
X. Deng, G.B. Piotrowski, N. Chawla, K.S. Narasimhan and M. Marucci

Microstructural Reinforcement Obtained by Diffusion Bonding
Luigi Alzati, Anders Bergmark and Jessica Andersson

Effect of Oil Impregnation on the Fatigue Properties of Ferrous P/M Parts
Guillem Vachon, Roch Angers, Tan Vo Van and Tandjoui Baazi

Characterization of the Fatigue Performances of P/M Components Produced with Powders Developed for Improved Machinability
Julie Campbell-Tremblay, Carl Blais, Gilles L’Espérance and Patrick Boilard

Influence of Heat Treating and Surface Treatments on the Fatigue Strength of High-Performance Sintered Steel
Thierry Mercier, Tandjaoui Baazi and Roch Angers

Initiation and Propagation of Cracks in Wrought and Sintered Steels during Rolling-Contact Fatigue
Gottfried Hoffmann and James A. Rice

Machinability and Dynamic Properties of Sinter-Hardened Steel Parts
Fabrice Bernier, Patrick Boilard, Jean-Paul Baïlon and Gilles L’Espérance

Chromium Prealloyed PM Steels Suitable for High-Performance Applications
Robert Frykholm and Ola Bergman

Cr-Mo P/M Steels as a Cost-Effective Replacement for Traditional Ni-Mo P/M Steels
Suresh Shah, Jerry Falleur, Ulf Engström and David Milligan

Efficient Low-Alloy Steels for High-Performance Structural Applications
Ulf Engström, David Milligan, Alex Klekovkin, Sigurd Berg, Bill Edwards, Leonid Frayman and Gerd Hinzmann

Mechanical-Property Potential of Iron-Base Infiltrated Parts
F.J. Semel

Ductile Components of Phosphorus-Alloyed P/M Steel
Jean Lynn, Paulo Rosa, Harry Meyer III, Ulf Engström, Sigurd Berg, Jan Tengzelius, Ola Bergman and Robert Frykholm

Comparison of Machining and Mechanical Properties between Manganese Sulfide and KSX in Powder Forged (P/F) Materials
Hironori Suzuki and Tetsuya Sawayama

Strength Anisotropy in a Cold-Compacted Low-Alloy Steel Powder
Steven Galen and Antonios Zavaliangos

Critical Learning from Microgravity Sintering of Tungsten Alloys: Implications for Extraterrestrial Fabrication and Repair
Randall M. German, Seong J. Park, John L. Johnson and Louis G. Campbell

Properties of Polymer-Bonded Permanent Magnets Made with Melt-Spun Mixed Rare Earth-Iron-Boron
Nicholas L. Buelow, Iver E. Anderson, R.W. McCallum, Matthew Kramer, Wei Tang, Kevin Dennis and Steve Constantinides

Characteristics of DC Brush Motors with Rotors Made of Iron Powder Cores
Masateru Ueta, Satoshi Uenosono, Naomichi Nakamura and Junichi Asami

The Effect of Warm Compaction on P/M Soft-Magnetic Properties
Ian W. Donaldson and Fran Hanejko

Isotropy and Rotational Behaviour of Dielectromagnetics
Dominika Gaworska, Jarosław Koniarek and Bogumil Weglinski

Effect of Composition and Cooling Rate on Physical Properties and Microstructure of Prealloyed P/M Steels
Bruce Lindsley, George Fillari and Thomas Murphy


Part 11
—Test & Evaluation


Fundamentals of Resonant Acoustic Method NDT
Gail R. Stultz, Richard W. Bono and Mark I. Schiefer

Functional Quality: Comparing Process-Compensated Resonant Inspection of Powder Metal Parts with Destructive Evaluation
Robert N. Nath, James T. Long, James S. Schwarz, Marvin K. Johnson and James R. Held

On-line and Off-line Infrared Flaw Detection
Souheil Benzerrouk, Reinhold Ludwig and Diran Apelian

Evaluation of the Scuffing Resistance of Powder Metal Gears in the FZG Back-to-Back Test Rig
Joel Mandel, Gary Draxler and Timothy Geiman

The Densitometer
Georg Schlieper

Failure Analysis in MIT: Finding the Truth
Mitchell N. Gross

A Report on Green-Part Handling Techniques Including Vision Inspection
James R. Morris

Physical Basis of the Resonant Acoustic Method for Flaw Detection
Mark I. Schiefer and Lina Sjoeberg

Machine Capabilities to Detect and Separate Defective Green Parts
Uwe Haupt



Part 12—Applications


Processing P/M Components to High Density Using an Advanced Lubricant/Binder System
George Poszmik and Michael L. Marucci

Growth of PM through Material and Processes Development for High-Performance Components
Sigurd Berg

PM Steel for High-Loaded Applications
Anders Bergmark, Sven Bengtsson and Claes Kuylenstierna

High-Performance Applications of Chromium Steels Sintered at Conventional Temperatures
Richard Slattery, Patrick King and Francis Hanejko

Gear-Performance Characteristics: Powder Metallurgy vs. Cast Iron & Wrought Steel
Howard I. Sanderow

Rolling-Contact-Fatigue Performance Contrasting Surface-Densified, Powder Forged, and Wrought Materials
William Jandeska, Richard Slattery, Francis Hanejko, Arthur Rawlings and Patrick King

Surface Densification of Helical and Spur Gears
Sven Bengtsson, Linnéa Fordén, Magnus Bergström and Claes Kuylenstierna

Predictive Model Development for P/M Gear Rolling
Gerd Kotthoff, Björn Leupold and Timothy Geiman

Performance Improvements in Surface-Densified FLN2-4405 Gears Made with Extra-Fine Ni Powder
Thomas F. Stephenson, Maria Korotkin, Taj Singh and Gottfried Hoffmann


Part 13—Management Issues


Academic P/M Research and Development in Western and Central Europe
Paul Beiss

Recycling of EAF Dust by Semi-continuous High-Kinetic Process
H. Zoz, G. Kaupp, H. Ren, K. Goepel, Z. Tian, M.R. Naimi-Jamal and D. Jaramillo V

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